:: Measures ::
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- Prof. Dr. Jochen Gebauer
- Dr. Jennifer Eck
- M.Sc. Jana Berkessel
- M.Sc. Lucia Boileau
- Dr. Theresa Entringer
- Dr. Tobias Ebert
- M.Sc. Vera Vogel
- M.Phil. Janis Zickfeld
- Alumni & alumnae
Communal Narcissism Inventory

Narcissists possess strong narcissistic self-motives for grandiosity, esteem, entitlement, and power. The classic view assumes that narcissists solely capitalize on agentic means to satisfy their narcissistic self-motives. For example, they overestimate their own competence, intelligence, and agentic knowledge. We are currently examining the possibility that there are also narcissists who capitalize on communal means to satisfy their narcissistic self-motives for grandiosity, esteem, entitlement, and power. For example, these "communal narcissists" should overestimate their own interpersonal qualities, prosociality, and communal knowledge. Evidence supports this two-dimensional perspective of narcissism. We devised a 16-item self-report measure of communal narcissism, the Communal Narcissism Inventory (CNI; Gebauer, Sedikides, Verplanken, & Maio, 2012). The CNI can be found here.

Gebauer, J. E., Sedikides, C., Verplanken, B., & Maio, G. R. (2012). Communal narcissism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103, 854-878. doi: 10.1037/a0029629

Agentic-Communal Over-Claiming Questionnaire 12 (AGCO-OCQ12)

Self-enhancement is a prevalent and momentous phenomenon. Hence, there lies much interest in valid self-enhancement assessments. Paulhus, Harms, Bruce, and Lycy (2003) have developed the Over-Claiming Technique ,in which participants are asked to report how knowledgeable they are regarding different knowledge-domains (e.g., "How familiar are you with each of the following physics items? (a) Alloy, (b) photon, (c) ultra-lipid;" Rating scale: (0) I never heard of it, (6) I am very familiar with it). Participants do not know that some items do not exist in reality (here: ultra-lipid). Self-declared expertise regarding non-existent items serve as indicator for self-enhancement. The AGCO-OCQ12 separately assesses such self-enhancement for the two big content-dimensions of self-enhancement: Agency and communion. The AGCO-OCQ12 can be found here.

Gebauer, J. E., Paulhus, D. L., Sedikides, C., & Elliot, A. J. (in prep). Socially desirable responding as agentic and communal self-enhancement. Manuscript in preparation. Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Germany.

Self-Burdensomeness Scale

Other-burdensomeness, the feeling that one is a burden on other people's life, is a major risk factor for suicide ideation. We are currently examining the role of the self-concept in the effect of other-burdensomeness on suicide ideation. Our research shows that other-burdensomeness poses a burden on the self (i.e., self-burdensomeness), which in turn leads to suicide ideation. In other words, self-burdensomeness is a central process mitigating the effect of other-burdensomeness on suicide ideation. We devised a 5-item self-report measure of self-burdensomeness, the Self-Burdensomeness Scale (SBS; Gebauer, Joiner, Göritz, Treismann, & Witte, submitted). Because the SBS is not yet published, please contact me to obtain the measure and additional information.

Gebauer, J. E., Joiner, T. E., Baumeister, R. F., Göritz, A. S., & Teismann, T. (submitted). Altruistic suicide or escaping a burdened self: Why does suicide ideation increase when one feels like a burden on others? Manuscript in preparation, Universität Mannheim.

Global Religiosity Measure

Religiosity possesses many facets. The 4-item Global Religiosity Measure (GRM; Gebauer & Maio, 2012) is a self-report scale that assesses global religiosity with face-valid items. Two items pertain to religious belief (i.e., belief in God and felt religiosity) and two items pertain to religious behavior (i.e., frequency of church attendance and prayer). The GRM is internally consistent and possesses good construct validity and predictive validity. Note: Because the response-format differs between items, each item has to be standardized before they can be averaged. The GRM can be found here.

Gebauer, J. E., & Maio, G. R. (2012). The need to belong can motivate belief in God. Journal of Personality, 80, 465-501. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2011.00730.x

Name-Liking Measure

The implicit assessment of global self-esteem is considered to be difficult but important. The 1-item Name-Liking Measure (NLM; Gebauer, Riketta, Broeemer, & Maio, 2008) is one of several approaches to implicitly assess global self-esteem. Similar to Nuttin's Name-Letter-Task, the NLM capitalizes on the idea that people should project their self-esteem onto self-related objects. Accordingly, people should project their self-esteem onto their name. This, in turn, should make high self-esteem people like their name a lot, whereas low self-esteem people should like their name only little. Given the NLM's brevity, the measure is particularly well suited when assessment time is scarce. Given known caveats of implicit measures of self-esteem in general, a meta-analysis of NLM results may be helpful in due time. Thus, I would be grateful, if you informed me about your NLM results. The NLM can be found here.

Gebauer, J. E., Riketta, M., Broemer, P., & Maio, G. R. (2008). "How much do you like your name?" An implicit measure of global self-esteem. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 1346-1354. doi: 10.1016/j.jesp.2008.03.016

Pleasure and Pressure based Prosocial Motivation Scale - Revised

There are many motives why people help others. Two major motives that frequently emerge in the literature are self-feelings of pleasure (approaching positive emotions) and self-feelings of pressure (avoiding negative emotions). The Pleasure and Pressure based Prosocial Motivation Scale (3PMS; Gebauer, Riketta, Broemer, & Maio, 2008) assesses these distinct prosocial motives. Compared to the original scale, we currently use a slightly longer version with improved psychometric properties, the 10-item 3PMS-revised (Gebauer, Sedikides, Leary, & Asendorpf, in prep). The 3PMS-revised can be found here.

Gebauer, J. E., Riketta, M., Broemer, P., & Maio, G. R. (2008). Pleasure and pressure based prosocial motivation: Divergent relationships to subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 42, 399-420. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2007.07.002